Buildings as a preventive barrier against COVID-19

Situations like COVID-19 are not isolated episodes

In the last 17 years, there have been at least 6 outbreaks (including the current one) capable of affecting the global population (SARS, MERS, Avian Flu, ZIKA and EBOLA).

Valuable work can be done by improving indoor environmental conditions in office buildings to prevent the impact of situations like COVID-19.

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by air is sufficiently likely that airborne exposure to the virus must be controlled. Changes in the way buildings operate, including air conditioning and ventilation systems are required.

What measures can be taken?

Ventilation and filtration provided by air conditioning, heating and ventilation systems and installations can reduce the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 in the air and therefore, lessen the risk of airborne transmission.

Unconditioned spaces can cause heat stress in people, posing a direct threat to their lives and reducing their resistance to infection.

Both UVGI light and its more powerful version, photocatalysis, recommended as ASHRAE Level A, are being used more and more frequently in ventilation systems. One of its main functions is to lower the microbial load in buildings.

Photocatalytic Filters (SFEG® Systems)

Composition and functions

This system comprises a honeycomb catalyst coated in Titanium Dioxide and ultraviolet germicidal light-emitting diodes (259nm).

It is designed to treat ventilation/air conditioning system air flows, reducing the risk of contamination with chemical compounds (NOx, VOCs, SO2, etc.) and microorganisms (Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi, Yeasts).

Characteristics

It combines UVGI germicidal ultraviolet light and oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. It deactivates the DNA of microorganisms.

SFEG® photocatalytic filters are tailor-made based on the characteristics of the project. They can be installed both in
air conditioners and ducts

They are arranged to irradiate the surfaces of the batteries to ensure that these stay clean and consume less energy.

An advantage of germicidal ultraviolet (UVC) irradiation systems, is that this system acts both on the interior surface of the air conditioning system and on the air flow.

Advantages

ELIMINATION OF GASES AND ODOURS

DESTRUCTION OF GERMS AND MICROORGANISMS

BENEFITS FOR THE HEALTH, COMFORT AND PRODUCTIVITY OF OCCUPANTS

COMPLIANCE WITH RITE REGULATIONS

SAVINGS IN MAINTENANCE COSTS

SAVINGS IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Compliance with RITE regulations

RITE (Regulations on Thermal Installations in Buildings, RD 1027/2007) REQUIRE the ventilation and air conditioning installations of buildings to meet minimum requirements for energy efficiency and indoor air quality (Art.11).

Exterior Interior
IDA 1 IDA 2 IDA 3 IDA 4
ODA 1 F9 F8 F7 F5
ODA 2 F7+F9 F6+F8 M5+F7 M5+M6
ODA 3 F7+GF*+F9 F7+GF+F9 M5+F7 M5+M6

*GF= Gas Filter (carbon filter) and/or chemical or physical-chemical filter (photocatalytic) and will only be required if ODA 3 is reached due to excess gases.

Position in AHU

Potential UVC Applications for Control of Microorganisms in Air and Surfaces

Examples of installations

Banco Santander. Abelias Building

OBJECTIVES AND DESCRIPTION

The Banco Santander Abelias Building located at C/ de las Abelias in Madrid, is a complex of 54,300 square metres distributed over seven floors and three underground parking levels, and accommodates around 1,600 employees.

Banco Santander has completed this project in the building located in the Madrid neighbourhood of Palomas with the aim of improving air quality and reducing the building’s energy consumption. The Project Manager for this project was Bovis.

The installation of SFEG® Photocatalysis Systems is in line with an improvement in indoor air quality and the building currently has the LEED® Gold certification.

INSTALLATION DATA

Aire Limpio has worked on the project with the installation of 3 SFEG® systems in the AHUs that service the Headquarters. In addition to the benefits of improving indoor air quality, SFEG® systems generate energy savings.

Sistemas de Fotocatálisis
Model SFEG
Nº of Units 3
Reduction in microbial load >99%

ADVANTAGES

Improves Indoor Air quality

Benefits for the health, comfort and productivity of occupants

Compliance with RITE regulations

Savings in maintenance costs and power consumption in AHUs

Implementation of energy-saving technologies

LEED Sustainability Criteria

POSSIBLE LEED CREDITS

Energy & Atmosphere

Indoor Environmental Quality

Innovation

Lagoh Shopping Centre

OBJECTIVES AND DESCRIPTION

The Lagoh Shopping Centre, with a total of 100,000 m2 of commercial and leisure areas, is located in Sevilla and expects to receive 14 million visits a year, making it the largest shopping centre in the province.

For the Facilities Management team, it is very important to provide the visitor with the best possible shopping experience, especially in terms of health and comfort, with the highest levels of Indoor Air Quality.

With the integration of the Aire Limpio SFEG systems into the AHUs, indoor air quality is improved and the energy consumption of the air conditioning system is reduced.

The installation of SFEG Systems is in line with the efficiency and sustainability criteria chosen by Grupo Lar for its shopping centres and Lagoh has the BREEAM Sustainable Construction Certificate.

INSTALLATION DATA

Aire Limpio has worked on the project with the installation of SFEG systems in the AHUs that provide service to the shopping centre. The flow range varies between 5,000 m3/hour and 50,000 m3/hour. In addition to the benefits of improving indoor air quality, SFEG systems generate energy savings.

Sistemas de Fotocatálisis
Reduced loss of battery charge 29,50%
Reduction ΔT in outgoing air 4,20%
Increase ΔT in battery water 6,10%
Reduction in microbial load >99%

ADVANTAGES

Improves Indoor Air quality

Benefits for the health, comfort and productivity of occupants

Compliance with RITE regulations

Savings in maintenance costs and power consumption in AHUs

Reduction in filter replacement costs

LEED, BREEAM and WELL Sustainability Criteria

POSSIBLE LEED CREDITS

Energy & Atmosphere

Indoor Environmental Quality

Innovation

Other practical cases

CIUDAD BBVA. LA VELA
TORRE IBERDROLA
MAPFRE EDIFICIOS MAJADAHONDA Y PALACIO DE MONTEPILAR

Edificios Majadahonda y Palacio Montepilar

Objetivos y descripción

Mapfre Inmuebles es la filial encargada en dar Servicios Inmobiliarios del Grupo Mapfre entre los que se encuentra, entre otros, la Gestión de Patrimonio Inmobiliario, la Gestión de los Proyectos y la Gestión del Mantenimiento y Conservación de los Edificios.

Durante el 2011 Mapfre Inmuebles ha realizado una serie de medidas para implantar tecnologías de ahorro energético y purificación de aire interior en los sistemas de ventilación.

Aire Limpio ha participado en el diseño y la instalación de los sistemas de purificación de aire utilizando las tecnologías de Fotocatálisis en los edificios de la sede central de Majadahonda y el Palacio Montepilar.

Datos de la instalación

Aire Limpio ha colaborado en el proyecto con la instalación de 3 sistemas SFEG® en las UTAs que dan servicio a la Sede. Además de las prestaciones en la mejora de la calidad del aire interior, los sistemas SFEG® generan ahorro energético.

Complejo Majadahonda

UTAs 2 UTA en cubierta 2 UTA en cubierta
Caudales 30.000 m3/hora 23.000 m3/hora
Filtración de Gases Sistemas Fotocatálisis
SFEG© PCO30 de Aire Limpio
Sistemas Fotocatálisis
SFEG© PCO23 de Aire Limpio
Pérdida de carga
Irradiación UVGI
Catalizador
20 Pa
19.000 μW/cm2
Reactor monolítico
19 Pa
11.400 μW/cm2
Reactor monolítico
Fecha de puesta en marcha Diciembre de 2011
Ahorro de costes de energía y mantenimiento 15.795 € /anuales

Palacio Montepilar

UTAs 1 UTA 2 UTA 3 UTA
Caudales 4.000 m3/hora 9.000 m3/hora 8.000 m3/hora
Filtración de Gases Sistemas Fotocatálisis
SFEG© PCO4 de Aire Limpio
Sistemas Fotocatálisis
SFEG© PCO9 de Aire Limpio
Sistemas Fotocatálisis
SFEG© PCO8 de Aire Limpio
Pérdida de carga
Irradiación UVGI
Catalizador
18 Pa
3.800 μW/cm2
Reactor monolítico
19 Pa
11.400 μW/cm2
Reactor monolítico
19 Pa
11.400 μW/cm2
Reactor monolítico
Fecha de puesta en marcha Febrero de 2011
Ahorro de costes de energía y mantenimiento 4.470 € /anuales

Ventajas

Mejora de la Calidad de Aire interior

Beneficia en la salud, confort y productividad de los ocupantes

Ahorro de costes de mantenimiento y consumo eléctrico en las UTAS

Ahorro de costes de mantenimiento y consumo eléctrico en las UTAS

Implantación de tecnologías de ahorro energético

Criterios de Sostenibilidad Leed

Créditos LEED posibles

Energy & Atmosphere
(Energía y Atmósfera)

Indoor Environmental Quality
(Calidad de ambiente interior)

Innovation
(Innovación)

What does the scientific community say?

Position Document on Infectious Aerosols

ASHRAE

UVGI inactivates microorganisms by damaging the structure of nucleic acids and proteins with an efficacy that depends on the UV dose and the susceptibility of the microorganism. The most important of these is deoxyribonucleic acid (RNA), which is responsible for molecular reproduction. The safety of UV-C is well known.

The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has approved UVGI as an adjunct to filtration in reducing the risk of tuberculosis, and published a guideline on its application (CDC 2005, 2009).7 (Evidence Level A).

A.Highly recommended; good evidence

B. Recommended, at least consistent evidence.

C.No recommendation for or against; benefits and harms too closely balanced to warrant a recommendation.

D.Recommend against; consistent evidence is ineffective or the harm outweighs the benefit.

E.Insufficient evidence to make a recommendation for or against on a routine basis;

The inactivation effect of photocatalytic titanium apatie on SARS Virus

Han Wei, Zhang Banhe, Cao Wuchun, Yang Dongling, Taira I, Okamoto Y, Arai JI, Yan Xiyun

UVGI inactivates microorganisms by damaging the structure of nucleic acids and proteins with an efficacy that depends on the UV dose and the susceptibility of the microorganism. The most important of these is deoxyribonucleic acid (RNA), which is responsible for molecular reproduction. The safety of UV-C is well known.

The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has approved UVGI as an adjunct to filtration in reducing the risk of tuberculosis, and published a guideline on its application (CDC 2005, 2009).7 (Evidence Level A).

research-china

Characterisation and photocatalytic treatment of indoor air Fungi and Bacteria

CIEMAT, Centre for Molecular Biology ‘Severo Ochoa’.

The effectiveness of this type of filter in moving air has been studied extensively.

Characterisation and photocatalytic treatment of indoor air Fungi and Bacteria” CIEMAT, Centre for Molecular Biology ‘Severo Ochoa.

investigacion-severo-ochoa

In summary

Offices should integrate systems and practices that promote the health and well-being of their occupants, thus making offices more resilient spaces that are better armed against physical pollutants and microorganisms
Aire Limpio offers the different technologies that are recommended by reputable world organisations

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